Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

Are you getting enough vitamin K2? Vitamin K2 has many health benefits, but most of us aren’t getting enough. In this post, I list the top 10 sources of vitamin K2.

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Health Benefits of Vitamin K2

Vitamin K2 helps to build strong bones and teeth. By helping to deposit the calcium where it needs to go in the body (in the bones and teeth), vitamin K2 also helps to prevent calcium build up in fatty tissue.

This is why vitamin K2 prevents kidney stones, heart disease, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Vitamin K2 & The French Paradox

This explains the “French Paradox” — the concept that the French eat loads of saturated fat in the form of butter, cheese, and foie gras, and yet they have one of the lowest rates of heart disease on the planet.

Kate Rhéaume-Bleue, N.D., vitamin K2 expert and author of  Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox  explains this in an interview with Dave Asprey:

“The paradox, for me, is this situation which so many people find themselves in, in which we absolutely need calcium in our bodies. We especially need it in our bones and our teeth, and that’s exactly where it tends to be lacking. People are prone to osteoporosis and dental cavities, so that is the minerals leaching out of the areas where they should be and leaving behind little holes, whether it’s porous bones or a hole in your tooth.

Then the flip side of that is in the very same people, or in the population at large, we see a buildup of calcium in places where it shouldn’t be, in places where you don’t want it to be, like arteries, and kidney stones, and heel spurs, and breast tissue calcification, and heart valves, and carotids, all kinds of areas. There we have this paradoxical situation of needing calcium, but it can be dangerous if it gets in the wrong places.

That’s really vitamin K2’s role, is to keep calcium in its place at all times. It sounds incredible that you can boost your bone health and reverse heart disease and all that kind of thing, but it makes sense that the body does have a way of dealing with this if it has the right nutrients to deal with that. You’re right. In general, we can’t look at any individual nutrient and really pinpoint … because all of the nutrients work together, we can’t really pinpoint the action of one away from the others.”

Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox by Kate Rhéaume-Bleue, N.D.

Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

Here are the top 10 sources of vitamin K2.

Many of these foods are things a lot of us don’t eat anymore, or try to limit, such as egg yolks and butter. But once you learn about the many health benefits of vitamin K2, you want to eat more of these foods, not less.

I’ve listed the sources of vitamin K2 in order of least vitamin K2 to the most. As you can see, emu oil, by far, is the world’s richest source of vitamin K2.

Emu oil contains more than 50 times more vitamin K2 than chicken liver or cheese, 4 times more than duck fat, more than 25 times more vitamin K2 than cream and butter, and over 10 times more vitamin K2 than ghee and egg yolks.

Note: I used the recently published lab reports from the Weston A. Price Foundation for my source for this article. The data is pretty well buried on their site, and rather surprising that they have not written any articles about emu oil, explaining that emu oil has over 10 times the amount of vitamin K2 than the Green Pastures butter oil they promote.

1. Cheese

Cheese is first on our list, as it has the lowest amount of vitamin K2 of all the sources. However, cheese is something you can add to many dishes, and you can eat a lot more of it than say, emu oil or duck fat.

According to Kate Rhéaume-Bleue, N.D., vitamin K2 expert and author of  Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox  says some cheeses like Brie and Gouda have a lot more vitamin K2 than other cheeses.

She says it’s really doesn’t matter whether it’s grass-fed cheese or not, but rather the type of bacteria used to make the cheese.

Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

2. Chicken Liver

Most people don’t eat a lot of chicken liver these days. However, if you like chicken liver pate, this is a good source of vitamin K2, as well as vitamin A, which many of us are deficient in.

Calves liver and other types of liver also have vitamin K2, but I don’t have numbers for those from the lab reports. However, they are probably in the same range as chicken liver.

Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

3. Beef Tallow

Beef tallow is another food that is not commonly eaten these days. Grass-fed beef tallow is a great option to use as a fat for people who don’t eat butter or lard. I love it used in pie crusts and biscuits.

I always save the fat leftover from making broth, or cut off from cuts of meat… and I render it into beef tallow and freeze for later use.

Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

4. Butter

Like cheese, butter is an easy addition to most people’s diets. You can cook with butter instead of modern factory oils, spread it on toasts and sandwiches, and use it to make all kinds of baked goods. I’m a big fan of butter croissants, and I eat them with extra butter.

The type of butter you buy does make a difference. For this post, I averaged the amount of K2 in the sources tested. Look for organic grass-fed butter from family farms.  Kerrygold butter has a decent amount of K2, if you can’t find local butter.

According to the lab tests, [easyazon_link identifier=”B00CHTWULE” locale=”US” tag=”cheeseslave0e-20″]Organic Valley butter[/easyazon_link] had more vitamin K2 (almost twice as much) than Kerrygold. That said, we don’t know when the butter was purchased and whether the cows were eating grass or hay when the butter was made. It makes a difference whether or not the cows are eating green grass versus hay.

If you can buy butter in bulk from local farmers in the springtime, when the cows are eating green grass, and store in your freezer, that is ideal (it’s a lot cheaper that way, too).

As you will see below, ghee has more K2 than butter.

Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

5. Cream

Cream is another food that’s easy to add to your diet. We eat a lot of [easyazon_link identifier=”B00DWVFDL0″ locale=”US” tag=”cheeseslave0e-20″]crème fraîche[/easyazon_link] in our house. We eat it on our taco bowls, on our enchiladas and nachos, and on our baked potatoes.

Ice cream is another good source of vitamin K2, but it has less K2 than say, straight cream, since ice cream is made with cream and milk. You can make your own ice cream with pure cream. Whipped cream is another thing I love.

Yes! I just gave you permission to eat ice cream sundaes again!

Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

6. Lard

Lard, or pig fat (including bacon grease), has slightly more vitamin K2 than butter and cream — not a whole lot more. But lard is a good source of vitamin K2.

If you make bacon on a regular basis like we do at our house, there are lots of uses for leftover bacon grease so don’t throw it away!

Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

7. Ghee

Ghee, which is a clarified butter that is traditional in India, has up 2-3 times more vitamin K2 as butter. It’s a much more concentrated form of vitamin K2, because the milk proteins have been removed and it’s just pure fat. Fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin K2 are found within the fat.

I love ghee because it has a long shelf life and, unlike butter, you can use it to deep fry foods.

The type of ghee you buy will determine how much vitamin K2 you get. In the lab tests I sourced, [easyazon_link identifier=”B015ZS1Y0Q” locale=”US” tag=”cheeseslave0e-20″]Pure Indian Foods ghee[/easyazon_link] had substantially more vitamin K2 than [easyazon_link identifier=”B00U9VQUEA” locale=”US” tag=”cheeseslave0e-20″]Purity Farms ghee[/easyazon_link]. I know that Pure Indian Foods only uses butter from cows eating grass in the springtime, so that may have something to do with it.

Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

8. Egg Yolks

Egg yolks have twice as much vitamin K2 as butter or cream. A great way to get more egg yolks is to add extra yolks to your scrambled eggs.

Hollandaise sauce is one of my favorite ways to eat egg yolks — I love nothing better than Eggs Benedict for breakfast. Mayonnaise is another sauce you can make with egg yolks.

Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

9. Duck Fat

There’s a monumental jump in vitamin K2 in pastured duck fat. Duck fat has 3 times more vitamin K2 than ghee or egg yolks, 7 times more vitamin K2 than butter or cream, and 13 times more than cheese or chicken liver.

The best way to get duck fat is to roast a duck every so often and save the rendered fat from the roasting pan. I roast a duck every couple months for this purpose. I just strain the fat from the roasting pan through a sieve into a mason jar, cover and stick it in the fridge. You can also strain it into ice cubes and freeze.

Duck fat is fabulous for making French fries or used to make just about anything you would use butter or lard for.

Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

My number one way to eat [easyazon_link identifier=”B01B8V7ACA” locale=”US” tag=”cheeseslave0e-20″]duck fat[/easyazon_link] is foie gras, which is a duck or goose liver pâté. This is a great source of vitamin K2 and it’s so delicious. If you’re worried about ducks and geese being hurt via the “gavage” process, it’s not true. They have a different anatomy so it doesn’t hurt them, and they naturally gorge on grains in the wild.

Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

10. Emu Oil

Emu oil contains more vitamin K2 (Menaquinone-4, or MK-4, the preferred kind of K2) than any other food source. Emu oil has 53 times more vitamin K2 than chicken liver or cheese, 27 times more than cream and butter, 13 x more than ghee and egg yolks and 4 times more vitamin K2 than duck fat.

You don’t cook with emu oil; you take it as a supplement. Since it’s so concentrated, you don’t need to take very much.

Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

Where to Buy Emu Oil

I recommend Walkabout Emu oil sold by Corganic.

Questions and Answers About Sources of Vitamin K2

1. What About Fermented Foods Like Natto?

In this list, I only included sources of foods that contain Menaquinone-4, or MK-4, the preferred kind of K2. [easyazon_link identifier=”B01DAPHA72″ locale=”US” tag=”cheeseslave0e-20″]Natto[/easyazon_link], which is Japanese fermented soybeans, is also a great source of vitamin K2.

However, it contains Menaquinone-7, or MK-7. Natto is very high in vitamin K2 and is the very best source of MK-7 vitamin K2.

Natto has 350-400 mcg of vitamin K2 per 1-ounce serving, or around 1,100 per 100 grams (3.5 ounces). However, MK-7 is not as absorbable as MK-4, so you can eat less food MK-4 foods to get the same amount of vitamin K2.

I actually love natto and enjoy eating it for breakfast. I like to add rice, a raw egg yolk, Japanese pickles, and a little soy sauce.

[easyazon_link identifier=”B01DAPHA72″ locale=”US” tag=”cheeseslave0e-20″]Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2[/easyazon_link]

Other fermented vegetables like sauerkraut and kimchi contain some vitamin K2, but not as much as natto. According to Dr. Kate Rheaume-Bleue, sauerkraut and other fermented veggies have around 50 mcg per serving. That said, it depends on the type of if specific starter cultures that they use. They can have can have ten times more based on the type of starter culture, or around 500 mcg per serving.

Also, keep in mind that not every strain of bacteria makes vitamin K2. For example, most yogurts contain almost no vitamin K2. Some cheeses are very high in K2, and others are not. Miso and tempeh are also not high n K2.

2. Can You Overdose on Vitamin K2?

No, you can’t overdose on vitamin K2. Bring on the croissants and Hollandaise sauce!

3. How Much Vitamin K2 Should We Take Each Day?

Dr. Kate Rhéaume-Bleue says she recommends 350-400 mcg per day for adults. For children, she recommends 120 micrograms per day.

This is for MK-7, not MK-4. You would need to take a lot less MK-4-based vitamin K2, since MK-4 is more absorbable.

4. Want to Learn More About Vitamin K2?

I recommend picking up a copy of Dr. Kate Rhéaume-Bleue’s wonderful book, [easyazon_link identifier=”0062320041″ locale=”US” tag=”cheeseslave0e-20″]Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox[/easyazon_link].

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Top Sources of Vitamin K2

Ann Marie Michaels

I have 25 years of experience in digital and online media & marketing. I started my career in Silicon Valley and Los Angeles, working at some of the world’s top ad agencies. In 2007, after my first child was born, I started this little food blog which I grew to over 250K monthly unique website visitors and over 350K social media followers. For nearly 15 years, I've helped my audience of mostly moms and women 25-65 cook for their families and live a healthier lifestyle.

 The year after I started the blog, I founded a blog network in the health & wellness space called Village Green Network. I started the company on my coffee table and bootstrapped the business to over $1.3 million in annual revenue within 5 years. During that time, I helped a number of our bloggers become six figure earners. After being censored on almost every social media platform for telling the After being censored on almost every social media platform from Facebook and Instagram to Pinterest and Twitter, and being deplatformed on Google, I am now deployed as a digital soldier, writing almost exclusively about politics on my blog Because who can think about food when we are fighting the second revolutionary war and third world war? Don't worry, there will be more recipes one day. After the war is over.

31 thoughts on “Top 10 Sources of Vitamin K2

  1. Thanks for the links to the WAPF tests.

    The results for butter oil are curious. In document 021015, the MK4 results for Green Pastures butter oil is around 800 ng/g.

    In document 120315 (1), the result for "extra virgin butter oil" is 260 ng/g. No brand name is provided but this is the name of Corganic's discontinued product. The result of Green Pastures semi solid fraction is 200 ng/g. And the same for the liquid fraction.

    Despite its high price, Corganic's butter oil was hardly a better source of MK4 than some of the organic butters tested!

    Any idea what explains the discrepancy between the Green Pastures result in 021015 and 120315 (1)? Was there, I wonder, a fraction that wasn't tested in 120315 (1) that contains the bulk of the MK-4?

  2. Hi, I am trying to figure out how much of these things would be optimal to eat, and your chart is very helpful, except that it shows that the MK-4 amounts come in nanograms, which seems like very little in relation to the recommendations noted here and around the web (which generally seem to apply to MK-7) that run in the hundreds of micrograms. Do you have any sources for recommendations on how many nanograms of MK-4 a person should be taking?

  3. Nevermind, please feel free to delete my previous comments. I have been doing the conversions and see that the amounts are actually comparable. Thanks!


      1. Hi. Thanks for all the useful info. Do you have any references for goose fat. I can't find anything on the Internet that actually specifies how much it has in?

  4. Hi, it is difficult for me to eyeball the numbers from the chart. Can you show me a list of vitamin K2 values with the foods such as eggs, butter, and ghee? Thanks.

  5. My understanding is that you have this backwards. MK7 is actually the preferred one. I know that in clinical studies on K2 for RA, they used far less MK7 to get even better results than from MK4.

    1. That’s what I heard, too! I heard that MK-4 was the artificial form they put in K2 supplements, and that it is more rapidly used up, and a person has to take two to four times a day to get the same effects as Mk-7 from animal sources once a day… but I am just starting my research on it.

  6. In Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia I have now started taking Vitamode's CalciVit D3 PlusK2 (MK7)(60mcg) – as they all work together with Magnesium added! – tablets to eliminate the uncertainty of inadequate K2 in foods I eat.

  7. As another commenter pointed out, you have this – "MK-7 is not as absorbable as MK-4" – backwards. 7 has a far higher bioavailability profile. Natto has been speculated to be one of the main reasons for the longevity of Japanese people eating a traditional diet, and that's probably largely attributable to the Mk-7.

  8. Actually, the author MAY have got it right with MK-4 vs MK-7. Don't assume "not as absorbed" to mean having poor bioavailability resulting in poor blood levels. It's been found that both of these forms of K2 are equally absorbed into the bloodstream based on equal dosages, but MK-7 blood levels remain consistently high when measured over a 24 hour period, while MK-4 blood levels decline almost immediately and disappear after only four hours. The reason why this MAY BE happening is because MK-4 COULD BE metabolized in the human cell more easily and quickly than MK-7. Of course, there still needs to be more research done before conclusions can be made.

    This is backed up by the pioneer of vitamin K2, Dr. Weston A Price, in his groundbreaking 1945 research of the African Masai Tribe and their geographic restricted diet. He discovered their traditional diet consisted almost entirely of cows blood, fermented dairy, and organ meats (sources high in MK-4). He theorized this was the reason why the Masai had exceptionally straight teeth, no dental caries or plaques, and had no chronic diseases that were starting to become more prevalent in western industrialized nations. Dr. Price called his discovery the X-factor. It consisted of an active lifestyle with lots of vitamin D producing sun exposure, and a diet high in vitamin A and what he called "Activator-X" (at the time vitamin K2 was unknown).

  9. In your article you mention that pastured duck fat is required, but say that foie gras is a preferred way to get duck fat. Foie gras comes from ducks that are force-fed grain via a tube down their throats. Does this mean that the ducks don't need to be pastured – as getting pastured duck fat here is very difficult?

  10. So how many yolks from large eggs, grams of chicken liver and how many grams of Kerrygold butter do you need to consume to get the daily required amount of Vitamin K2 whether that be MK4 or MK7?

    1. grass fed butter contains 14.5 mcg of K2 per 100g serving. jarlsberg, gouda and brie cheese is about 70 mcg per ounce. you need about 45mcg to 180 mcg per day. egg yolks contain about 32.1 mcg per yolk. chicken liver is 14.1 mcg for 100g. chicken liver is the k2-mk4. egg yolks are also k2-mk4. the gouda and brie and also jarlsberg cheeses are k2-mk7.

  11. Also how many grams of brie cheese do you need to consume to get the required daily amount of K2? Many thanks in advance.

    1. 1 ounce of gouda or brie has 75 mcg in it and you need about 45 mcg to 180 mcg a day of the k2-mk7. so about 1 – 2 ounces will do you.

  12. Chicken thighs are said to have 60 mcg of Vitamin K2 per 100 grams. Does this refer to 1) skinned or skinless and 2) grass/pasture or corn fed chicken?

    I would like to know approximately the level of Vitamin K2 in non grass/non pasture fed, skinless chicken thighs that you find in UK supermarkets such as Asda and Tesco. Many thank in advance for any replies.

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